A substantial number of Jews had also long made Iberia their home. The size and benefits of the encomienda thus depended on the local indigenous situation: In what has come to be known as the Columbian exchangediseases such as smallpox and measles decimated populations with no immunity.
The Spaniards tended to reassign noncontiguous parts of one entity to other entities geographically closer, thereby mutilating the original entity. Alma Guillermoprieto, The Heart that Bleeds.
It came instead as a conservative initiative led by military officers, merchants, and the Roman Catholic Church. Colonial-era Religion[ edit ] Traveling to the New World[ edit ] The Spanish Crown regulated immigration to its overseas colonies, with travelers required to register with the House of Trade in Seville.
Production, Reproduction, and Political Action April By the first years of the 19th century, the rebels had shattered what had been a model colony and forged the independent nation of Haiti.
The central-area encomienda Already crucial in the Caribbean, the encomienda now developed even further. Political and economic ideology of early independence February 5: In consequence, the two peoples and cultures underwent an overall slower and less thorough process of amalgamation.
The political landscape was occupied by conservativeswho believed that the preservation of the old social hierarchies served as the best guarantee of national stability and prosperity, and liberalswho sought to bring about progress by freeing up the economy and individual initiative.
The Spaniards also learned that the indigenous people were not a solid unit but would often cooperate with the intruders in order to gain advantage against a local enemy.
If there is one theme in this course, it is that of choices. After difficult conquests of their home regions, the two movements spread the cause of independence through other territories, finally meeting on the central Pacific coast. University of Texas Press Religious devotion became more localized, with the appearance of locally born saints and near-saints, notably St.
The immigrants continued to come from all parts of Spain, constituting an even broader cross section than had the conquerors, for women were now a standard part of the stream.
Attempts in this direction were led by Francisco Pizarrowho despite being illegitimate and illiterate had all the other familiar characteristics of the leader; not only was he the illegitimate son of a prominent family but he also was one of the first captains on the American mainland, by the s a wealthy encomendero and town council member of Panama.
Mining The mining sector drove the economy of the Spanish world and was an indispensable component of it, yet in several ways it stood apart. At Carabobo on June 24, his forces decisively defeated Spanish and colonial forces, winning Venezuelan independence, although hostilities continued.
The Portuguese built their empire in Brazilwhich fell in their sphere of influence owing to the Treaty of Tordesillasby developing the land for sugar production since there was a lack of a large, complex society or mineral resources.
Central authority proved unstable in the capital city of Buenos Aires. Household complexes, for example, continued to be divided into separate dwellings for the constituent nuclear families.
Any such word refers to commonalities seen from the outside and not to any unity perceived by the inhabitants of the Americas themselves. Forces loyal to Spain fought the Venezuelan patriots from the start, leading to a pattern in which patriot rebels held the capital city and its surroundings but could not dominate large areas of the countryside.
The immigrants continued to come from all parts of Spain, constituting an even broader cross section than had the conquerors, for women were now a standard part of the stream. All books and required readings are on reserve in the library.
Madero's failure to address agrarian claims led Zapata to break with Madero and resume the revolution. Women and the nation March Such movement occurred in Mexico too, but there the new arrivals tended to melt into the existing entity, whereas in the Andes they remained a large separate group without local land rights or tribute duties, known in Spanish as forasteros.
The Cuban Revolution - overview April Indians, the state, and Liberal-Conservative conflict. But Andean sociopolitical units were less contiguous territorially than those of central Mexico or Spain, and the population engaged in more seasonal migration. For many decades the Portuguese had been exploring along the coast of Africa, bringing back many Africans as slaves.
If he moved back to Lisbon, he might lose Brazil, but if he remained in Rio, he might well lose Portugal.
Cambridge University Press,pp. In most regions placer gold was soon exhausted, though Mexico relied on it for a generation, and it eventually became the principal export of New Granada present-day Colombia.In July, he convened the Congress of Panama to promote democracy and cooperation between Latin America's independent states, but Argentina, Chile and Brazil refused to attend the conference, and the conference was a failure.
Latin American History Before Columbus Colonialism and Imperialism The Caribbean Central America Independence from Spain in Latin America. Article. Explorer Panfilo de Narvaez Found Disaster in Florida.
Mexican-American War An Overview. Article. Timeline of the Mexican-American. Other good sources of contemporary news from Latin America include NACLA Report on the Americas, Latin American Perspectives, the Latin American Newsletters from London, and the Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS), a daily transcript (in English) of radio, TV, and newspapers monitored by the CIA in Latin America.
Independence, (Cambridge, ) and Stephen Haber (ed.), How Latin America Fell run consequences of colonial emancipation and the widening gap in living standards between Latin America and the developed countries 2. History of Latin America, history of the region from the pre-Columbian period and including colonization by the Spanish and Portuguese beginning in the 15th century, the 19th-century wars of independence, and developments to the end of the 20th century.
Latin America is attracting increasing interest due to the strong economic performance of the last decade and to the political changes that are taking place. This book gives a unique, comprehensive, and up to date view of Latin America economic development over the two centuries since Independence.Download